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Skin Care

Our skin care section contains products for treating acne, bacterial, fungal and viral skin infections and inflammatory conditions of the skin; as well as various skin beauty products.

The different classes of Skin Care products are listed on the left of the page and when you click on one of these, the principal brand name products display in the left column and generic alternatives to the right.

Use the search feature to quickly find the product you are looking for, by entering either the active ingredient, e.g. Tretinoin or the product name, e.g. Retin A Cream

...Read more
Our skin care section contains products for treating acne, bacterial, fungal and viral skin infections and inflammatory conditions of the skin; as well as various skin beauty products.

The different classes of Skin Care products are listed on the left of the page and when you click on one of these, the principal brand name products display in the left column and generic alternatives to the right.

Use the search feature to quickly find the product you are looking for, by entering either the active ingredient, e.g. Tretinoin or the product name, e.g. Retin A Cream

...Read more

About the skin

The skin is the body’s largest organ and plays several important roles. It acts as physical barrier and serves as protection from infection, injury and the sun’s rays; it prevents dehydration, provides insulation and helps regulate body temperature. The skin also produces vitamin D, which is essential for healthy bones.

The structure of the skin comprises two layers, the epidermis and the dermis, with a subcutaneous layer containing the body fat. The epidermis is made up of keratinocytes; cells that produce keratin a protein that gives the skin its strength and is also found in nails and hair. Skin is constantly being renewed as new cells are produced at the base of the epidermis and old cells move to the surface, die, harden and are eventually rubbed off. The epidermis also contains the pigment melanin, which give the skin its natural colour and protects against ultraviolet (UV) rays from the sun to prevent burning. More melanin is made in response to increased exposure to the sun.

The dermis contains superficial blood vessels, nerves and sensory nerve endings. It is composed of connective tissue containing the fibrous proteins collagen and elastin that give skin its strength and flexibility. As we age, reduced amounts of these proteins results in normal age-associated thinning of the skin and formation of wrinkles. Hair follicles in the dermis produce new hairs which grow up through the hair shaft and emerge through the epidermis. Attached to the base of each hair follicle is a sebaceous gland, which produces sebum, an oily secretion that helps lubricate the skin. The sweat glands are also found in the dermis producing sweat, which is released through pores that open through the epidermis, cooling the skin and excreting waste products like urea.

The surface of the skin is home to many microorganisms, including yeasts and bacteria, which under normal circumstances do not cause any problems. If the natural balance is disturbed, infection may develop. Dead skin cells mixed with sebum provide nutrients for bacterial growth, therefore it is important to keep skin clean.

Types of skin conditions

Skin conditions are due to a variety of problems, including infection, inflammation, sun damage and changes in pigmentation. The more common skin conditions that are covered in this section are:
  • Acne, which usually affects teenagers and is caused by overproduction of sebum cloging up pores in the skin, leading to the formation and spread of pimples (papules), spots or whiteheads (pustules) and blackheads (comedones), which can become infected with bacteria.
  • Fungal infections cause thrush and ringworm, amongst other skin conditions and affect several parts of the body including the mucous membranes of the mouth and vagina, ranging from mild to severe.
  • Infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) that infects mucous membrane cells of the lips causing cold sores.
  • Bacterial infection of skin cells like impetigo, folliculitis (infected hair follicles) and furunculosis (boils); also secondary infection of damaged skin.
  • Inflammatory skin conditions due to hyperactivity of the immune system, such as psoriasis, a non-allergic autoimmune condition that causes dry scaly patches; also dermatitis and eczema, allergic skin conditions causing redness and itching.
  • Skin discolouration due to loss of pigment, a condition called vitiligo, or due to patches of increased pigmentation, such as age spots, freckles and acne scar tissue.
  • Warts, which are raised lumps of hard skin caused by infection with human papillomavirus
  • Solar or actinic keratoses, which are patches of pre-cancerous skin caused by sun damage.
  • Unwanted growth of facial hair or hirsutism.
  • Haemorrhoids, which are swollen blood vessels around the anus.

Range of treatments for skin conditions

The range of products available for skin conditions that are covered in this section include:
  • Topical and oral acne medications containing tretinoin and adapalene, which are retinoid-like compounds, or azelaic acid, an antibacterial with keratolytic properties; also antibiotics for infected acne.
  • Antifungals, antivirals and anti-bacterials for various skin infections.
  • Topical treatment containing calcipotriol, a Vitamin D derivative for treatment of psoriasis.
  • Topical skin lighteners for treating skin discolouration and vitiligo.
  • Topical corticosteroids for treating inflammation in inflammatory skin conditions like dermatitis and eczema.
  • Topical cream containing imiquimod, an immunomodifier that acts as antiviral and antitumour agent for treating warts and solar or actinic keratoses.
  • Topical treatment containing the anti-metabolite fluorouracil that is used to treat pre-malignant skin lesions.
  • Topical cream containing eflornithine an inhibitor of hair growth for preventing unwanted facial hair.
  • Topical treatment for haemorrhoids containing cinchocaine a local anaesthetic and the corticosteroid hydrocortisone.

Caring for your skin

The environment, particularly exposure to UV from the sun, contributes to skin damage and together with the natural aging process causes skin to lose moisture resulting in the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. Free radicals are unstable and highly reactive chemicals produced by oxidation, which is a chemical reaction that occurs in the body as a result of normal metabolism or due to environmental factors such as UV radiation or pollution and cigarette smoke. Free radicals can cause cell damage and cell death and are thought to contribute to skin damage. Antioxidants are stable compounds that neutralise free radicals and therefore protect against the damage they can cause. Antioxidants occur naturally in some fruits and vegetables, such as Vitamin E, the most common fat-soluble antioxidant and Vitamin C, the most common water-soluble antioxidant.

As we age the appearance of the skin changes, the epidermis becomes thinner, less collagen is produced and more moisture is lost, all of which are accelerated by UV exposure. Age-related changes in melanocyte (cells that produce the pigment melanin) size and activity, can result in the formation of large patches of pigment known as age spots, liver spots or lentigos.

Several oral and topical skin care products are available made form natural biological extracts containing antioxidants, vitamins, minerals and nutrients to help to keep the skin hydrated and nourished and to protect the skin from damage. Certain medications that are generally used for treating acne can also be helpful for reducing skin blemishes, including the keratolytic agent azaleic acid and tretinoin a, retinoid-like compound.

Scar formation

A scar is the visible sign of healing a wound in the skin and consists of fibrous tissue that replaces normal skin. New scar tissue usually has a different appearance and texture to the surrounding skin. Topical herbal extracts are available to help improve the appearance of scars.

Topical anaesthetic

Topical analgesia for minor surgical procedures of the skin is available as a cream containing the local anaesthetics lignocaine and prilocaine.

...Read more

About the skin


The skin is the body’s largest organ and plays several important roles. It acts as physical barrier and serves as protection from infection, injury and the sun’s rays; it prevents dehydration, provides insulation and helps regulate body temperature. The skin also produces vitamin D, which is essential for healthy bones.

The structure of the skin comprises two layers, the epidermis and the dermis, with a subcutaneous layer containing the body fat. The epidermis is made up of keratinocytes; cells that produce keratin a protein that gives the skin its strength and is also found in nails and hair. Skin is constantly being renewed as new cells are produced at the base of the epidermis and old cells move to the surface, die, harden and are eventually rubbed off. The epidermis also contains the pigment melanin, which give the skin its natural colour and protects against ultraviolet (UV) rays from the sun to prevent burning. More melanin is made in response to increased exposure to the sun.

The dermis contains superficial blood vessels, nerves and sensory nerve endings. It is composed of connective tissue containing the fibrous proteins collagen and elastin that give skin its strength and flexibility. As we age, reduced amounts of these proteins results in normal age-associated thinning of the skin and formation of wrinkles. Hair follicles in the dermis produce new hairs which grow up through the hair shaft and emerge through the epidermis. Attached to the base of each hair follicle is a sebaceous gland, which produces sebum, an oily secretion that helps lubricate the skin. The sweat glands are also found in the dermis producing sweat, which is released through pores that open through the epidermis, cooling the skin and excreting waste products like urea.

The surface of the skin is home to many microorganisms, including yeasts and bacteria, which under normal circumstances do not cause any problems. If the natural balance is disturbed, infection may develop. Dead skin cells mixed with sebum provide nutrients for bacterial growth, therefore it is important to keep skin clean.

Types of skin conditions

Skin conditions are due to a variety of problems, including infection, inflammation, sun damage and changes in pigmentation. The more common skin conditions that are covered in this section are:
  • Acne, which usually affects teenagers and is caused by overproduction of sebum cloging up pores in the skin, leading to the formation and spread of pimples (papules), spots or whiteheads (pustules) and blackheads (comedones), which can become infected with bacteria.
  • Fungal infections cause thrush and ringworm, amongst other skin conditions and affect several parts of the body including the mucous membranes of the mouth and vagina, ranging from mild to severe.
  • Infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) that infects mucous membrane cells of the lips causing cold sores.
  • Bacterial infection of skin cells like impetigo, folliculitis (infected hair follicles) and furunculosis (boils); also secondary infection of damaged skin.
  • Inflammatory skin conditions due to hyperactivity of the immune system, such as psoriasis, a non-allergic autoimmune condition that causes dry scaly patches; also dermatitis and eczema, allergic skin conditions causing redness and itching.
  • Skin discolouration due to loss of pigment, a condition called vitiligo, or due to patches of increased pigmentation, such as age spots, freckles and acne scar tissue.
  • Warts, which are raised lumps of hard skin caused by infection with human papillomavirus
  • Solar or actinic keratoses, which are patches of pre-cancerous skin caused by sun damage.
  • Unwanted growth of facial hair or hirsutism.
  • Haemorrhoids, which are swollen blood vessels around the anus.

Range of treatments for skin conditions

The range of products available for skin conditions that are covered in this section include:
  • Topical and oral acne medications containing tretinoin and adapalene, which are retinoid-like compounds, or azelaic acid, an antibacterial with keratolytic properties; also antibiotics for infected acne.
  • Antifungals, antivirals and anti-bacterials for various skin infections.
  • Topical treatment containing calcipotriol, a Vitamin D derivative for treatment of psoriasis.
  • Topical skin lighteners for treating skin discolouration and vitiligo.
  • Topical corticosteroids for treating inflammation in inflammatory skin conditions like dermatitis and eczema.
  • Topical cream containing imiquimod, an immunomodifier that acts as antiviral and antitumour agent for treating warts and solar or actinic keratoses.
  • Topical treatment containing the anti-metabolite fluorouracil that is used to treat pre-malignant skin lesions.
  • Topical cream containing eflornithine an inhibitor of hair growth for preventing unwanted facial hair.
  • Topical treatment for haemorrhoids containing cinchocaine a local anaesthetic and the corticosteroid hydrocortisone.

Caring for your skin

The environment, particularly exposure to UV from the sun, contributes to skin damage and together with the natural aging process causes skin to lose moisture resulting in the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. Free radicals are unstable and highly reactive chemicals produced by oxidation, which is a chemical reaction that occurs in the body as a result of normal metabolism or due to environmental factors such as UV radiation or pollution and cigarette smoke. Free radicals can cause cell damage and cell death and are thought to contribute to skin damage. Antioxidants are stable compounds that neutralise free radicals and therefore protect against the damage they can cause. Antioxidants occur naturally in some fruits and vegetables, such as Vitamin E, the most common fat-soluble antioxidant and Vitamin C, the most common water-soluble antioxidant.

As we age the appearance of the skin changes, the epidermis becomes thinner, less collagen is produced and more moisture is lost, all of which are accelerated by UV exposure. Age-related changes in melanocyte (cells that produce the pigment melanin) size and activity, can result in the formation of large patches of pigment known as age spots, liver spots or lentigos.

Several oral and topical skin care products are available made form natural biological extracts containing antioxidants, vitamins, minerals and nutrients to help to keep the skin hydrated and nourished and to protect the skin from damage. Certain medications that are generally used for treating acne can also be helpful for reducing skin blemishes, including the keratolytic agent azaleic acid and tretinoin a, retinoid-like compound.

Scar formation

A scar is the visible sign of healing a wound in the skin and consists of fibrous tissue that replaces normal skin. New scar tissue usually has a different appearance and texture to the surrounding skin. Topical herbal extracts are available to help improve the appearance of scars.

Topical anaesthetic

Topical analgesia for minor surgical procedures of the skin is available as a cream containing the local anaesthetics lignocaine and prilocaine.

...Read more

 

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